As regards the Irish border issue, a Northern Ireland Protocol (the “backstop”) annexed to the Agreement sets out a fallback position that will only enter into force if effective alternative arrangements cannot be demonstrated before the end of the transition period. If this happens, the UK will follow the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will retain some aspects of the single market until such a demonstration is achieved. None of the parties can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland where customs controls are necessary.  No one really knows what will happen at the Irish border if there is a no-deal Brexit on October 31. 03. December 2020 – Impact of Brexit on trade disputes – In the eighth part of this series, London-based partner Swati Tripathi discusses the impact of a no-deal Brexit on trade disputes given the prevailing use of English law and the English courts in cross-border commercial contracts. 29 January 2019 – Below you will find the undersigned law firms` common view on the German regulatory position of UK broker-dealers who continue to trade financial instruments with German counterparties after a hard Brexit (i.e. no transition period, no equivalence decision for UK investment firms in accordance with Article 47 of Regulation (EU) No 600/2014 (MiFIR)). In this document, references to German broker-dealers should be understood as any bank or broker-dealer (including German branches of foreign companies) which have their registered office in and from Germany and carry out regulated investment activity or trading activity on their own account (proprietary trading and own account activity). References to UK bro-ker-dealers likewise refer to any bank or broker-dealer (including UK branches of non-UK companies) which has its registered office and operates from the UK and carries out the regulated investment service or trading activity on its own account with a German broker-dealer. A no-deal would also mean that the UK services sector would lose its guaranteed access to the EU`s single market.
The United Kingdom Court of Auditors (NAO) produced The UK border: preparedness for EU exit update in October 2018 and an update in February 2019.  These suggest that 11 of the 12 critical border systems would be at risk if a no-deal exit had taken place on March 29, 2019. :4 The UK and the EU are currently negotiating a trade deal to eliminate tariffs on each other`s goods and keep controls to a minimum. The agreement defines the goods, services and associated processes. It argues that any goods or services lawfully placed on the market before leaving the Union may continue to be made available to consumers in the United Kingdom or in the Member States of the European Union (Articles 40 and 41). The UK`s recurring contributions to the EU budget would have been abolished. (A House of Commons backgrounder published in June 2016 indicates that the average net contribution for the years 2013 to 2017 was £7.9 billion per year.)  The withdrawal agreement negotiated by Prime Minister Theresa May included an agreement that the UK would have to pay a “divorce bill” of £39 billion for past and long-term commitments.  On August 25, 2019, it was reported that a legal team had informed the UK government that the amount owed in the event of a no-deal Brexit would be £9 billion and possibly only £7 billion.
 In July, Greece understood that “the election of Boris Johnson as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom paves the way for a disorderly Brexit.” For this reason, Varvitsiotis said, Greece wanted to establish the “list of hundreds of outstanding issues that we need to look at, because if they are not covered by a comprehensive agreement between the EU and the UK, all these agreements will have to be developed bilaterally and nationally.” He wanted all actions to respect both the “relationships we have and the relationships we will build from here.”  To avoid a no-deal Brexit at the end of October, the British government must implement the Brexit divorce plan, receive a further extension from the EU, or cancel Brexit. According to UNCTAD, a no-deal Brexit could have had an impact on third world countries, including Africa.   However, a no-deal Brexit could have benefited China.  A no-deal Brexit could reduce EU exports to the UK by $34 billion and Turkey by $2 billion on the one hand, and increase Chinese exports by $10 billion and US exports by $5 billion on the other.  Although Boris Johnson has agreed to a revised deal with the EU, the possibility of a no-deal Brexit is still not ruled out. In the event of a no-deal Brexit, there would be no time to strike a trade deal between the UK and the EU. The transition period shall end as set out in the Withdrawal Agreement. It was expected that the economies of both parts of Ireland would be seriously affected by a no-deal Brexit.   It is widely accepted that the UK and the EU have negotiated a free trade agreement. .